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himachal pradesh
Himachal Pradesh

History of Himachal Pradesh


The region of Himachal Pradesh is called 'Dev Bhoomi' (Land of Gods). From the earliest period of its history, it was inhabited by tribes like Koilis, Hailes, Dagis, Dhaugis, Dasa, Khas, Kinnars and Kirats. 

The Aryan Influence in the Kangra Fort dates back to the period before the Rigveda in this region of India. Raja Shankar Varma of Kashmir exercised his influence over the regions of Himachal Pradesh in 883 AD. 

The region witnessed the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni in 1009 AD, who invaded and looted money from temples in the north of India during this period. 

The Rajputs ruled the region in about 1043 AD. Known for its vibrant and exquisite natural scenery, it received the royal patronage of the Mughal rulers, who created many works of art as a complement to this country.

Rajputs took possession of the region under Sansar Chand in 1773 AD, crushing Rajput power until an attack by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1804. 

The Gurkhas who migrated from Nepal took over the region and devastated it. About the early 19th century, the British exercised their influence and captured Shimla after the Gorkha War of 1815–16. It became a union territory in 1948 with the unification of 31 hill states and in 1966 additional territories were added to it.

Himachal Pradesh 55,673 sq km Has spread in. Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Punjab to the west and southwest, Haryana to the south-east to the south and Tibet to the east.

The state is situated from 450 meters to 6500 meters above sea level. It is hidden by the plains of the Shivalik range of hills. (Shivalik literally means the stars of Lord Shiva).  

Geographical divisions from south to north (1) Outer Himalayas or Shivalik (2) Lesser Himalayas or Central region (3) Great Himalayas and Zaskars or Northern regions.

The Shivalik consists of the lower hills (about 600 meters above sea level). These hills are made up of highly unresponsive deposits that cause high rates of erosion and deforestation.

The low Himalayas are marked by gradual elevation towards the Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal ranges. The hike is more aggressive in the Shimla hills, which is the high peak of the Chandrani (3647 m) church in the south. North of the Sutlej River, the rise is gradual.


Kangra Fort
Kangra Fort



The Kangra Valley is at the foot of the Dhauladhar mountain. Dhauladhar which means ‘White Peak’ means an average elevation of about 4550 meters. 

It has a sudden rise at an altitude of 3600 meters above the Kangra valley. Pir Panjal, the largest of the low Himalayan ranges, has branches from the greater Himalayan mountains, located near the banks of the Sutlej River. 

Many glaciers are present and many passes are in Pir Panjal. Rohtang Pass (4800 m) is one of them.

The Great Himalayan ranges (5000–6000 m) run along the eastern boundary and cross by the Sutlej. Some of the famous passes of this range are Kangla (5248 m), Baralacha (4512 m), Parang (5548 m) and Pin Parbi (4802 m).

The Zaskar range is the easternmost range and separates Kinnaur and Spiti from Tibet. 

Its height is increasing from 6500 meters, Sheela (7026 meters) and Ravo Fergule (6,951 meters) are the highest among its peaks. Many glaciers or shigars (local names) are on Zaskar and the Great Himalayan Mountains.

Himachal has rich vegetation covering about 38% of the forest area. Many varieties of vegetation are found here in the Himalayan grasslands and high altitude birch and tropical forests below and the bamboo forests of the hills below. It also has many types of wildlife.


Himachal has 49 cities and towns. The smallest city is Naina Devi and the largest Shimla has a population of 6,17,404.

 The urban population is only 7.5% of the total population. Most people live in different rural settlements from different areas, which are different from different areas.


Information about Arts and Craft of Himachal Pradesh

Chamba Rumal
Chamba Rumal

Most of the people of Kullu are living on their own using shawls and other hand made products. Hundreds of weavers' societies and others in Kullu and Mandi districts are making Kullu shawls, caps and other handloom products. 

 The world-famous Chamba handkerchief and slippers for unique handicraft is not an identity for any identity. Both the handicrafts have been dominated since princely times.

 Chamba handkerchiefs and slippers are sold at the International Minjar Fair in Chamba. Slippers can be shopped in the shops set up in the Chamba market and handkerchiefs in the exhibition held at the Mijar fair. 

The Chamba handkerchief is embroidered on silk and cotton cloth. It takes two weeks to two months to make a handkerchief. Handkerchiefs are difficult to sell due to the high price.

 Buying in different parts of the country is not easy. It has to be bought or ordered in Chamba. The affluent families of Chamba use this handkerchief when they bid farewell to the daughter's wedding. 

The handkerchiefs were given as gifts to the British officials and the kings of the neighboring princely states. Chamba handkerchiefs are also present in German and English museums.


Information about Geography of Himachal Pradesh




Map of Himachal Pradesh
Map of Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh has a great tourist value, we need to know about it before our journey or journey starts. It is a state in the Indian hilly region. 

The northern part of India is covered from east to west by the large Himalayas. Himachal Pradesh is placed in the Western Himalayas and is situated in an area of ​​55,673 sq km, about 350 meters above sea level, above 7,000 meters elevation.

Himachal Pradesh is lying between north latitude 30 ° 22′40 ″ to 33 ° 12′40 ″ north latitude and 75 ° 45′55 ″ to 79 ° 04′20 ″ east longitude. 

The states surrounding Himachal Pradesh are Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Punjab in the west and southwest, Haryana in the south, Uttar Pradesh on the southeast and China is its only former neighbor.

Himachal Pradesh is built with 12 different districts

They are Shimla, Kangra, Hamirpur, Mandi, Bilaspur, Una, Chamba, Lahul and Spiti, Sirmaur, Kullu, Solan and Kinnaur in which Shimla district is the capital of Himachal Pradesh.

 The administration of a district is controlled by a deputy commissioner or a district magistrate who is an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service. Each district is divided into several subdivisions, which are controlled by sub-divisional magistrates.

 Each subdivision is constructed with several blocks and one block is formed by several panchayats and municipalities.


Information about Climate of Himachal Pradesh



kalpa, Himachal Pradesh
Kalpa, Himachal Pradesh
Complex variations of altitude have made the country's climate a distinctive feature. You will find different temperatures in different districts of Himachal Pradesh. 

The weather in Himachal mainly depends on the geographical elevation above average sea level. We know, the decrease rate of temperature is proportional to the growth rate of altitude.


Himachal Pradesh has an average temperature of 28 ° C in summer (April to late June) and 7 ° C in winter (late November to March). 

But, there is some area, with elevation above 7,218 feet, always covered with snow and the temperature of those areas is always less than ° C. Originally these zones are in high and trans-Himalayan zones. 

Three main seasons are found here and these are the winter, summer and rainy seasons. The rainy season of the state has come after the summer season from July to September. However,

 some northern districts of the state (Lahaul and Spiti) are almost cold and cold throughout the year. On the other hand, the Dharamsala has received heavy rainfall.

Information about Rivers of Himachal Pradesh

Satluj River in Himachal Pradesh
Satluj River in Himachal Pradesh

The rivers of Himachal Pradesh mainly formed the glaciers of the Himalayan Mountains. Those mountains not only get water from the small rivers of Himachal but also the Indus River Ganges valleys, the two great rivers of India. 

The important rivers of Himachal Pradesh are the Chandra Bhaga River, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej and Yamuna River. These rivers are perennial and are fed by the snow and rainfall of that region.

Information about Flora and Fauna of Himachal Pradesh


Fauna of Himachal Pradesh
Fauna of Himachal Pradesh


Himachal Pradesh is broadly divided into six types of forest forests, namely, moist tropical forest, dry tropical forest, Montana sub-tropical forest, Montana thermal forest, sub-alpine forest, and alpine. 

There are clear forests. 21,325 sq km. The state is covered with forest (about 38.3% of the total area of ​​the state). The southern part or lower parts of the state are tropical and subtropical dry brolife forests and tropical and subtropical moist brolife forests. 

Sal and Shisham trees are mainly found here. The central parts of the state are covered with mosaic brondluff forests and subtropical pine forests. 

Mainly oaks, cedar, and blue pine trees are found here. The upper parts of the state include Himalayan Alpine plants. Rhododendron tree can be seen on the side of hills in Shimla.

 Himachal Pradesh has great value for making various sweet fruits. It supplies orchards and apples across the country.

In the state, Himachal has around 1200 birds and 359 types of animals. They are Leopard, Snow Leopard, Musk Deer, Patience, and Western Tragopan. 

There are 12 major national parks and sanctuaries here. The Great Himalayan National Park is in the Kullu district, which was created to conserve the flora and fauna of the Himachal Himalayan Mountains and Pin Valley National Park was created to conserve the flora and fauna of the colder parts of the state.

Economic condition of Himachal Pradesh


Farming
Farming

Economically, Himachal Pradesh is the most important state in the country. The main sources of income of the state are heavily dependent on agriculture, tourism and hotels and hydroelectric power projects.

 According to the 2011 survey, the state ranked fourth in terms of per capita income among other states of India. Nearly 45% of the state's people are the main source of income directly from agriculture. The main cultivation of the state is rice, wheat, maize, and barley.

You will find many small industries in Himachal Pradesh. These companies are famous for their handicapped people. District Kullu is famous for its Pashmina shawls with top designs and vibrant colors and Kangra and Dharamshala are known for Kangra paintings.

 All of his handcraft creations are woolen and Pashmina shawls, carpets, silver and metal utensils, embroidered slippers, Kangra and Gompa style paintings, horse hair bangles, wooden and metal items and many more. 

Hydroelectric power resources provide 25% of India's total electricity. So, this hydroelectric energy is a very good value in India. It provides a hydropower capacity of about 20,300 million by some mini or micro hydropower projects on five river basins.

Information about People of Himachal Pradesh


There is a difference in the number of races, communities, and cultures in Himachal. The crime rate is very low.

 Their beliefs are simple, beliefs are primitive and myths are difficult to understand. A birth, a fair, a community gathering, a wedding, a festival all provide opportunities for song and dance. 

They have a relatively closed society. They rarely close their homes. There are few examples of theft or deception.

 They strongly believe that all their actions are recorded in heaven and their proportions, good or bad, ultimately determine their next birth. will do.

93% of the state population is engaged in agriculture. Most of the land is owned by Rajputs, Brahmins, and Mahajans (upper caste) who dominate the economic and political life of the state. They also dominate the ritual status. 

The low castes with about 24% of the population are mostly artisans. They depend on the upper castes for their livelihood and hold them in reverence. With the implementation of social and agricultural reforms, the relationship is gradually becoming interdependent.

People of Himachal love color. Their dress patterns follow the local climate. People of Lahaul wear long gowns and trousers but their gowns do not have orange sleeves. They wear grass or leather shoes. Their hat indicates that they come from the area.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions )


How many riyasat are there in HP?

In the past, Himachal Pradesh was five important princely states, in which Kahlur, Hundar, Mahasu, Trigarta, Kalind, Kulutades, Suket were the main riyasats.

How Himachal Pradesh was formed?

Himachal Pradesh came into existence as a full-fledged state on 25 January 1971. Himachal Pradesh was the 18th state of India.

What is the state game of HP?

Volleyball is the state game of Himachal Pradesh.

How many languages are spoken in Himachal Pradesh?


The official language of Himachal Pradesh is Hindi, most of the people also speak well in the hills. They are also in Punjabi, Kangri, Kinnauri, and Dogri.

Some of the regional languages spoken in this state are Chambyali, Pangwali, Lahuli, and Kinnauri.

Which is the longest river in Himachal Pradesh?

Chenab river.

Which is the largest city of HP?

Shimla is the largest and capital city of the state of Himachal Pradesh, with a population of 171,640 inhabitants on a total area located in Shimla district.

How to reach Himachal Pradesh

Due to the complexity of its land, the state's transportation and communications are not very well organized like a remote-emerging state. The state is mainly connected by its roadways. Himachal Pradesh Railways and Airlines do not have the infrastructure so well, but construction work is going on under these practices.

1) Travel by roads

The roadways of the state have made good communication from district to district with a total length of 28,210 km. 

There are 3 national highways that represent 1,235 km of roadways, which cross-state across the state. NH No. 20 is known through several districts of Himachal Pradesh. 

This highway has connected several districts into one network. Mainly, it ends at Noorpur to Dharamshala, Palampur, Joginder Nagar, and Mandi

NH No 205 enters from the state of Chandigarh and goes through Leh to Bilaspur, Kullu, Mandi, and Manali. NH No 22 enters from Ambala and goes through Solan, Shimla, Narkanda, and Rampur via Kinnaur.

 Some roads are closed due to snowfall and landslides in the winter and monsoon seasons.

Transport of roadways mainly depends on buses and private taxis in Himachal Pradesh. If you want to travel in the state then you have to choose Delhi or Chandigarh to enter the state by bus or taxi. 

Regular bus services are available at their destination in Himachal Pradesh at places like Shimla Kullu, Manali, Mandi, Ambala, Chail and Dehradun. 

You can tender a private taxi or sumo car to visit the entire place of your choice.

Himachal Pradesh has a list of roadways from Delhi and Chandigarh to your destination.

2) By Train

Railway tracks are found at some places in the state.

 Two railway narrow gauge lines in Himachal Pradesh (HP) are Pathankot (the longest railway in the state connected to the state of Punjab) and Kalka with a length of 96 km and a wide gauge line from Nangal to Talwara (under construction) in Shimla. 

There are railway gauge lines. The main railway stations of the state are Pathankot, Joginder Nagar, Shimla, etc. 

3) By Airplane

There are three domestic airports in the state, Bhuntar Airport located in Kullu Valley, Jumbaratti's only one in Shimla and Gaggal Airport in Kangra district.

 Another airport Banikhet is under construction. There is no international airport in the state. The airport is usually connected to the airports of Delhi and Chandigarh. 

Deccan Airlines, Air India Airlines, MDLR Airlines are returning and returning flights from Delhi and Chandigarh to Kullu.

 Jansen Airlines flights are only from Delhi to the capital city of Shimla.

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